The note patterns repeat 2 frets higher and always do it around an octave note of the scale you are in.
The one note is the root note also often referred to as the eight (same note root an octave away).
There are basically 5 positions within the 12 frets where this occurs on the neck.
That sounds manageable until you realize there are so many different ways to play a melody on the guitar.
You can go down in tone up towards the headstock or up in tone down towards the bridge.
Similarly, you can ascend towards the bridge and descend toward the head stock you can go horizontally or vertically or skip strings and play compound melodies and so on. Its trickier than it looks. Knowing how to play in five positions is considered decent.
Stuart starts us off with the guitar friendly A minor pentatonic scale in its 5 positions. Then Stuart runs us us through some one octave scales ascending and descending and he gives them all positional names and then tries to get us to know the root notes just from watching him and I think its bit difficult to understand without seeing it writ large.
“It is not a daily increase, but a daily decrease. Hack away at the inessentials.” ― Bruce Lee